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Fire Salamander

Scientific Name “Its name comes from the fact that people once believed it was born in fire.” Fire Salamander Conservation Status Fire Salamander Locations The Fire Salamander (Salamandra salamandra) is a species of amphibian found in Europe. It belongs to the order Urodela and the family Salamandridae. This species is classified as Least Concern by […]

Fire Salamander

Scientific Name

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“Its name comes from the fact that people once believed it was born in fire.”

Fire Salamander Conservation Status

  • Status: Least Concern

Fire Salamander Locations

  • Region: Europe

The Fire Salamander (Salamandra salamandra) is a species of amphibian found in Europe. It belongs to the order Urodela and the family Salamandridae. This species is classified as Least Concern by conservation organizations.

Fire Salamander Facts

Common Name: Fire Salamander
Scientific Name: Salamandra salamandra
Type: Amphibian

Group Behavior: Solitary
Habitat: Forests
Predators: Grass snakes
Diet: Carnivore

Fun Fact: Its name comes from the belief that it was born in fire
Most Distinctive Feature: Striking colors
Estimated Population Size: Unknown
Biggest Threat: Bsal fungus

Name of Young: Salamander nymphs, metamorphs
Number of Species: 13
Location: Central and Southern Europe

Fire Salamander Physical Characteristics

Color: Yellow, Red, Black, Orange
Skin Type: Permeable
Weight: 40g (0.09lbs)
Length: 15–30 cm (6-12 in) long
Age of Sexual Maturity: 4-6 years
Gestation Period: 60-150 days (2-5 months)
Litter Size: 20-75

The Fire Salamander is a solitary amphibian found in forests across Central and Southern Europe. Known for its striking colors, including yellow, red, black, and orange, it is a carnivore feeding on various prey. Despite its vivid appearance, its population size is unknown, with the biggest threat being the Bsal fungus. With a gestation period of 60-150 days and a litter size ranging from 20-75, this species matures sexually between 4-6 years of age, reaching lengths of 15–30 cm and weighing about 40g.

The fire salamander holds the title of being the most recognized salamander species in Europe, prevalent across Central and Southern regions. Its notable presence is attributed not only to its widespread distribution but also to its vibrant warning colors and potent poisonous secretion. The name “fire salamander” fire salamander for sale, fire salamander drawing, fire salamander habitat, fire salamander life cycle, how do you treat scale rot in a fire salamander, fire salamander frozen 2, fire salamander diet, fire salamander art, mythical fire salamander, wild kratts fire salamander, fire salamander facts, stems from ancient folklore, suggesting a connection to fire. With its striking appearance, this exotic-looking amphibian is often kept as a popular pet choice.

5 Incredible Fire Salamander Facts!

  1. Impressive Size:
    The fire salamander ranks among Europe’s largest salamanders, showcasing its substantial stature within the amphibian world.
  2. Toxicity Variance:
    Numerous subspecies of the fire salamander possess toxic secretions, serving as a formidable defense mechanism against potential predators.
  3. Striking Warning Colors:
    Its vibrant and eye-catching colors serve as a clear warning to predators, signaling the presence of potent toxins and deterring them from potential attacks.
  4. Live Birth:
    Unlike many other amphibian species, fire salamander females give birth to live offspring rather than laying eggs, showcasing a unique reproductive strategy.
  5. Fire-related Folklore:
    The fire salamander’s name is steeped in folklore. It is believed that these salamanders often hide under logs, and when the logs are gathered for firewood, they emerge, creating a connection between the salamander and fire in traditional tales.

Scientific Name

The fire salamander, scientifically classified as Salamandra salamandra, belongs to the class Amphibia, encompassing amphibians. Within this class, it falls under the Order Urodela, which comprises lizard-like amphibians, and the Family Salamandridae, which includes true salamanders and newts.

The genus Salamandra encompasses six species of salamanders found in central and southern Europe, North Africa, and Western Asia. Among these species, the fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra) is the most well-known. Its scientific name includes the nominate subspecies or species type, S. salamandra salamandra.

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Within the fire salamander species, there are 13 subspecies. Notably, two subspecies (fastuosa and bernadezi) exhibit viviparous reproduction, where the young develop inside the mother and are born live. The remaining subspecies are ovoviviparous, fire salamander scientific name, fire salamander care, how to treat scale rot in a fire salamander, fire salamander predators, red fire salamander, fire salamander mythology, fire salamander lifespan, how to draw a fire salamander, fire salamander poison, fire salamander dnd, art fire salamander, fire salamander eggs, fire salamander pet, meaning the young develop in eggs inside the mother until they are ready to hatch.

Recent genetic research has led to the recognition of four former subspecies as distinct species due to unique genetic characteristics:

  • S. algira (African fire salamander)
  • S. corsica (Corsican fire salamander)
  • S. infraimmaculata (Near Eastern fire salamander)
  • S. longirostris (south Iberian fire salamander)

These distinctions highlight the diverse and fascinating evolutionary history of the fire salamander and its relatives.

Evolution And History

The salamander likely traces its ancestry back to an ancient amphibian known as Metoposaurus algarvensis, affectionately dubbed the “super salamander,” discovered in Portugal. This remarkable creature inhabited European waters over 200 million years ago. Belonging to a group of amphibians called Temnospondyls, the super salamander was widespread globally and is presumed to have included the ancestors of modern salamanders. This connection underscores the fascinating evolutionary history of these amphibians and their enduring legacy from prehistoric times.


The fire salamander exhibits a striking coloration, primarily featuring a black body adorned with yellow blotches and spots. In some subspecies, orange and red hues may replace or blend with the yellow markings. Males and females share similar appearances, except during the breeding season when males develop a swollen gland around their vent, containing a spermatophore.

This amphibian typically grows to a length of 15–30 cm (6-12 in), although individuals often reach only half of that size, with a weight of around 40g (0.09 lbs). As a middle to large-sized species, the fire salamander boasts a robust body structure.

Characteristic of the Subfamily Salamandrinae, fire salamanders possess rough skin and lack rib or costal grooves along the sides of their bodies. Within Europe, they represent the largest species of salamander, further highlighting their impressive size and stature within the amphibian world.


The behavior of the fire salamander is primarily solitary, reflecting its reclusive nature. This amphibian tends to seek refuge under logs, leaves, and other objects, as well as around mossy tree trunks. It exhibits a nocturnal lifestyle, being most active in the evening and at night. However, during rainy periods, schleich fire salamander, fire salamander frozen 2 lizard, fire salamander frozen, dnd fire salamander,fire salamander fun facts, fantasy fire salamander, fire salamander interesting facts, fire salamander fantasy, fire salamander characteristics, fire salamander cartoon, how do you treat scale rot on a fire salamander, fire salamanders may become diurnal, venturing out during the day to take advantage of the damp conditions. This behavioral flexibility allows them to adapt to their environment and optimize their activity patterns based on prevailing weather conditions.


The fire salamander thrives in the natural habitat of deciduous, hilly forests, and mountain ranges found in Europe, North Africa, and the cooler regions of the Middle East. Within this biome, small brooks, streams, or ponds are essential for their survival, providing opportunities for soaking and maintaining moisture levels. These amphibians are typically found at altitudes ranging from 250 meters (820 ft) to 1,000 meters (3,300 ft), although they may occasionally inhabit lower altitudes as well, rarely descending below 25 meters (82 ft).

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The various subspecies of the fire salamander are distributed across different regions and habitats:

  • S. s. alfredschmidti (Asturian Fire Salamander): Found in the Iberian Peninsula.
  • S. s. almanzoris (Almanzor Fire Salamander): Inhabits high altitudes in the Sistema Mountains of Central Spain.
  • S. s. bejarae: Found at low altitudes in the Sistema Mountains of Central Spain.
  • S. s. bernardezi: Found in the Iberian Peninsula.
  • S. s. beschkovi: Located in Bulgaria.
  • S. s. crespoi: Found in the Iberian Peninsula.
  • S. s. fastuosa or S. bonalli (yellow-striped fire salamander): Inhabits the Iberian Peninsula.
  • S. s. gallaica (Galician fire salamander): Found in the Iberian Peninsula.
  • S. s. gigliolii: Located in Italy.
  • S. s. morenica: Found in North Africa.
  • S. s. salamandra (spotted fire salamander): Inhabits the Balkans.
  • S. s. terrestris (barred or banded fire salamander): Found across mainland Europe, northwest Africa, and the Mediterranean coast.
  • S. s. werneri: Located in Bulgaria.

These diverse subspecies demonstrate the fire salamander’s ability to adapt to various environmental conditions across its extensive range.


The fire salamander sustains itself on a carnivorous diet, feeding on a variety of prey including insects, spiders, earthworms, slugs, newts, and young frogs. In captivity, their diet is typically supplemented with crickets, mealworms, waxworms, and silkworm larvae. When hunting, fire salamanders employ their teeth or tongue to seize their prey, exhibiting their adeptness in capturing their food. This carnivorous feeding behavior ensures their nutritional needs are met both in their natural habitat and in captive environments.

Predators And Threats

The fire salamander boasts formidable natural defenses against predators, primarily due to the potent toxins present in its skin. These toxins can sicken or even prove fatal to would-be attackers, and the salamander can further deter threats by secreting a noxious liquid spray when threatened. The toxin glands are concentrated around its head, dorsal skin surface, and tail. The primary alkaloid toxin, samandrin, induces severe muscle convulsions, hypertension, and hyperventilation in all vertebrates.

Despite these defenses, some predators may still target fire salamanders. Grass snakes have been observed preying on adult fire salamanders, while other predators may focus on capturing the young. Occasionally, larger reptiles, near eastern fire salamander, fire salamander baby, scale rot fire salamander, fire salamander tank size, fire salamander price, fire salamander pokemon, fire salamander harry potter, fire salamander tattoo, fire salamander wild kratts, is a fire salamander a reptile, fire salamander myth, fire salamander poisonous to humans, baby fire salamander, fire salamander enclosure, fire salamander coloring page, hawks, and eagles may attempt to prey upon fire salamanders if they are immune to or develop immunity to their toxins.

However, the most significant threat facing fire salamanders today is the Bsal fungus (Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans). This deadly fungus was inadvertently introduced from Asia by individuals importing Asian newts for the pet trade. Bsal infection renders fire salamanders unable to absorb oxygen through their skin or to feed. Since its discovery in 2013, Bsal has caused the deaths of thousands of native salamanders in Europe, posing a serious and ongoing threat to their survival.

Reproduction And Life Cycle

Fire salamanders exhibit two distinct forms of reproduction among their subspecies. The subspecies fastuosa and bernadezi are viviparous, meaning the young develop inside the mother and are born live. Conversely, all other subspecies are ovoviviparous, wherein the young develop in eggs inside the mother until they are ready to hatch. Despite giving birth to live young, fire salamanders still inhabit areas near small brooks, ponds, or streams to maintain moisture levels.

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Breeding season for fire salamanders typically spans from spring to autumn, with peak activity occurring during late spring and early summer. Mating primarily takes place on land, although subspecies in warmer climates, fire salamander spiritual meaning, can you touch a fire salamander, “algerian” fire salamander for sale, fire salamander anime, facts about fire salamander, fire salamander drawing easy, life cycle of a fire salamander such as those in the Middle East, may mate between October and January. Gestation usually occurs during hibernation, lasting 2-5 months.

Reproduction in fire salamanders is sexual, with the male initiating courtship by blocking the female’s path, rubbing her with his chin to express interest, and grasping her front limbs with his own. He then deposits a spermatophore, containing a sperm packet, fire salamander names, frozen 2 fire salamander, fire salamander food, fire salamander classification, fire salamander size, fire salamander tongue, fire salamander order, fire salamander in fire, propper cage aquarium for fire salamander, dark souls 2 how to jump the fire salamander, wild kratts fire salamander power, planet zoo fire salamander, fire salamander prey, fire salamander spraying poison, fire salamander gif, is the fire salamander poisonous, fire salamander facts for kids, fire salamander scale rot, sagittarius fire salamander, how to get into the cave with the fire salamander, fire salamander from frozen 2, fire salamander lizard from frozen 2, fire salamander behavior, sod bg fire salamander room, and attempts to lower the female to facilitate cloacal contact for fertilization. If successful, the female internalizes the sperm packet, and the eggs develop within her body.

Upon hatching, the female deposits the eggs into water in subspecies where the larvae are not born live. A single female can give birth to 20-75 young, with an average of 20-30 offspring. The young fire salamanders typically reach sexual maturity at 4-6 years of age.

The typical lifespan of a fire salamander ranges from 6-14 years, with some individuals living up to 30 years or even 50 years in rare cases. In captivity as pets, fire salamanders generally live between 6-14 years, with an average lifespan of around 10 years.


The fire salamander population is currently assessed as Least Concern by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Despite this favorable status, further research is required to accurately estimate population sizes and trends. While the species currently appears to be stable, ongoing monitoring and conservation efforts are essential to ensure the continued well-being of fire salamander populations in their natural habitats. Such research can provide valuable insights into population dynamics, habitat requirements, and potential threats, ultimately guiding effective conservation strategies for this iconic amphibian species.


The fire salamander stands as a resilient and iconic amphibian species inhabiting the forests and mountainous regions of Europe, North Africa, and parts of the Middle East. With its striking appearance, potent toxins, and unique reproductive strategies, it remains a subject of fascination for researchers and enthusiasts alike. While currently listed as Least Concern by the IUCN, ongoing research is necessary to monitor population trends and address emerging threats, particularly the spread of the deadly Bsal fungus. By understanding and conserving this remarkable species, we can ensure the continued survival of the fire salamander for future generations to appreciate and admire.

Soumik SarkarS

Soumik Sarkar

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