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Towhee (Pipilo erythrophthalmus)

“Most towhee species are non-migratory. However, some are partial migrators depending on their location.” The scientific classification of the Towhee is as follows: As for its conservation status, the Towhee is not listed as endangered or threatened. Towhees are primarily found in North America. Facts About Towhees: Towhees indeed belong to the family Passerellidae, commonly […]

Towhee (Pipilo erythrophthalmus)

“Most towhee species are non-migratory. However, some are partial migrators depending on their location.”

The scientific classification of the Towhee is as follows:

  • Kingdom: Animalia
  • Phylum: Chordata
  • Class: Aves
  • Order: Passeriformes
  • Family: Passerellidae
  • Genus: Pipilo
  • Species: Pipilo erythrophthalmus

As for its conservation status, the Towhee is not listed as endangered or threatened. Towhees are primarily found in North America.

Facts About Towhees:

  • Prey: Towhees prey on snakes, lizards, insects, worms, and snails.
  • Group Behavior: They are typically solitary birds.
  • Fun Fact: Most towhee species are non-migratory, but some are partial migrators depending on their location.
  • Biggest Threat: Invasive species pose a significant threat to Towhees.
  • Most Distinctive Feature: Red eyes are one of their most distinctive features.
  • Temperament: Towhees are known to be territorial.
  • Wingspan: Their wingspan ranges from 9 to 10 inches.
  • Incubation Period: Towhee eggs take approximately 12 to 13 days to hatch.
  • Age Of Independence: Towhee chicks become independent around 30 days after hatching.
  • Habitat: They inhabit woodlands, forests, and urban cities.
  • Predators: Towhees face threats from predators such as the Red-shouldered hawk, Brown-headed cowbird, Western scrub-jay, raccoons, and rats.
  • Diet: Towhees are omnivores.
  • Lifestyle: They are diurnal, meaning they are active during the day.
  • Common Name: Towhee
  • Origin: Towhees are native to North America.
  • Number Of Species: There are 9 species of Towhees.
  • Location: Towhees are primarily found in North America.
  • Average Clutch Size: The average clutch size of Towhees is around 4 eggs.
  • Nesting Location: They typically nest on the ground.
  • Physical Characteristics:
  • Color: Towhees display brown, grey, red, and white colors.
  • Skin Type: Their skin is covered in feathers.
  • Lifespan: Towhees have a lifespan of around 10 years.
  • Weight: They weigh approximately 0.9 pounds.
  • Length: Towhees measure between 7.5 to 9 inches in length.
  • Aggression: Towhees exhibit medium levels of aggression.

Towhees indeed belong to the family Passerellidae, commonly known as the New World sparrows. Despite their name being challenging for some, it’s simply pronounced as “Tow-Hee.”

Their striking red eyes are indeed a distinctive feature. These birds are exclusively found in North America, with the Eastern Towhee (Pipilo erythrophthalmus) being the largest species among them.

Towhee Species

The Collared Towhee is indeed one of the notable species among Towhees. These birds showcase bright patterns and are primarily found in the highlands of south-central Mexico. Their habitats include flower banks, overgrown fields, pine forests, and brushy understories.

Collared Towhees are often observed feeding along field edges and quiet roadsides during late spring. While they are generally quiet birds, they do sing from low trees or bushes.

Their distinctive features include rusty caps, brightly striped heads, and bold white throats, which stand out against the wide black collar around their necks. Despite their generally quiet demeanor, their songs and calls are notably loud, distinguishing them from similar species like the chestnut-capped brush finch.

The Spotted Towhee, Eastern Towhee, and Canyon Towhee are indeed fascinating species within the Towhee family.

The Spotted Towhee is notable for its large size and striking appearance. Found in sun-filled thickets in western regions of North America, males sport black backs with white spotting and stripes, while females are grayish-brown. Their rufous flanks blend well with dry leaves, making them challenging to spot in leaf litter. However, they become more visible in spring when they sing from the tops of bushes and shrubs.

Eastern Towhees, as their name suggests, inhabit the eastern regions of North America. They are the largest among Towhee species and feature black and reddish-brown plumage with striking white markings. These birds prefer rummaging through undergrowth and are known for making quite a racket while doing so. Their “chewink” calls are surprisingly loud for their size.

The Canyon Towhee, resembling a large sparrow, is part of the New World sparrows family. Though similar in appearance to their cousins, the California Towhee, they occupy different habitats. Canyon Towhees are ground-dwellers found in various environments like desert grasslands, brushy areas, and suburban gardens. Their diet primarily consists of seeds and various invertebrates.

Where to Find the Towhee

Towhees indeed have a diverse habitat range, spanning woodlands, forests, and even urban cities. While they can thrive at altitudes as high as 6,500 feet, they generally prefer lower altitudes due to the warmer conditions.

All Towhee species are native to North America and typically construct their nests in bushes or on the ground beneath shrubs. Their foraging behavior primarily involves rummaging through foliage on the ground, where they search for food. They particularly thrive in areas with dense undergrowth.

These birds also occupy low-hanging branches, where they feed on fruits and insects. Despite the variety of species within the Towhee family, they all exhibit similar habitat preferences, making their range vast and diverse.

For instance, the Eastern Towhee, being one of the most common species, favors habitats such as the edges of fields, woodlands, and forests.


Indeed, among the different species of Towhees, there are variations in nest-building behaviors. For example, Spotted Towhees typically construct their nests on the ground or just above it in shrubs. Interestingly, it’s usually the females that take on the task of nest building, and it typically takes them around 5 days to complete the nest. This variation in nesting behavior reflects the adaptability of Towhees to their respective habitats and environmental conditions.

Size and Appearance

The variation in size and appearance among Towhee species is indeed remarkable.

The Spotted Towhee exhibits a black back and throat. Males display white spots on their wings and a white belly, while females have a grayish-brown plumage.

Eastern Towhees, being the largest species of the genus, boast a wingspan of 9 to 10 inches. Their rusty sides and dark tails contrast with white bellies. Males feature black backs, whereas females sport brown plumage. While Eastern Towhees typically measure between 6 to 9 inches in length, the Albert Towhees are slightly larger, ranging from 8.3 to 9.8 inches in length, with a wingspan of 10.4 to 11.6 inches.

In contrast, smaller species like the Green-tailed Towhee are more petite, measuring only 7.5 inches long. The Spotted Towhee is similar in size to a Robin.

The weight of Eastern Towhees can vary significantly, ranging from 0.1 to 1.1 pounds, with an average weight of around 0.9 pounds. This diversity in size and appearance reflects the adaptability and evolutionary divergence of Towhee species across different habitats and environments.

Migration Pattern and Timing

The migratory behavior of Towhees varies among species and populations. While most species in the genus are non-migratory, some exhibit partial migration depending on their location and environmental factors.

For instance, northern populations of Eastern Towhees may migrate seasonally, while southern populations tend to remain in their habitats year-round. This variation in migration patterns within the same species highlights the influence of factors such as climate and resource availability.

On the other hand, species like the California Towhee are known to be non-migratory, remaining in their habitats throughout the year. This consistency in behavior is likely influenced by factors such as habitat stability and availability of food sources.

Overall, the migratory behavior of Towhees reflects their ability to adapt to different environmental conditions and highlights the complexity of avian migration strategies.


Towhees are indeed known for their generally solitary nature and territorial behavior. They have various ways of communicating their desire to be left alone or to defend their territory.

Males, in particular, may exhibit behaviors such as flicking their tails and drooping their wings to signal to others that they prefer solitude and do not welcome intruders. This behavior serves as a form of communication within their species, helping to establish and maintain boundaries within their territories.

Their territorial nature can sometimes lead them to defend their homes more vigorously than necessary, emphasizing their commitment to protecting their territory and ensuring their own space and resources. This behavior is common among many bird species and plays a crucial role in their survival and reproductive success.

Reproduction and Lifespan

During the mating season, which typically spans from spring to summer for Eastern Towhees, females take around 5 days to construct their nests. They lay about 2 to 5 eggs, which then incubate for approximately 12 to 13 days. Once the eggs hatch, both parents engage in feeding the offspring for about 30 days.

In contrast, Spotted Towhee parents remain with their young for a shorter duration, typically around 10 to 12 days.

Spotted Towhees usually build their nests on the ground or just above it in shrubs. Females can produce at least two broods per season, laying around 3 to 5 eggs per brood. The eggs are typically creamy white or grayish in color and appear elongated.

Regarding lifespan, there are variations between species. Eastern Towhees have been known to live as long as 12 years, while Spotted Towhees can survive up to 11 years. On average, most Towhee species have a lifespan of around 10 years. These variations in lifespan reflect factors such as environmental conditions, predation, and genetic factors.


Towhees indeed have a diverse diet as omnivores, consuming a variety of foods including:

  • Plants and fruits
  • Snakes
  • Lizards
  • Insects
  • Worms
  • Snails

Their omnivorous nature allows them to exploit a wide range of food sources, including both plant matter and various types of small animals such as snakes, lizards, insects, worms, and snails. This adaptability in diet enables Towhees to thrive in a variety of habitats and environments where these food sources are available.

Predators, Threats, and Conservation Status

Towhees face predation from several species, including:

  • Red-shouldered hawk
  • Brown-headed cowbird
  • Western scrub-jay
  • Raccoons
  • Rats

While the entire genus of Towhees does not have an official conservation status, many species are classified as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List. However, there are exceptions, such as the Sirocco Towhee (Pipilo socorroensis), which is listed as Endangered.

The Sirocco Towhee’s population is declining due to various factors, including competition from invasive species, genetic weaknesses, and susceptibility to diseases. These threats highlight the importance of conservation efforts to protect vulnerable Towhee species and their habitats from further decline.


While there isn’t an official record for the population size of Towhees, many species are considered to have stable populations. This stability suggests that these birds are not currently facing significant population declines or immediate threats to their survival.

However, it’s essential to continue monitoring Towhee populations and their habitats to ensure their long-term conservation. By studying population trends, researchers can identify any potential declines or threats early on and implement appropriate conservation measures to protect these birds and their ecosystems.

Last Words…

Towhees are fascinating songbirds native to North America, characterized by their striking appearance, diverse habitats, and unique behaviors. With their omnivorous diets, solitary nature, and territorial tendencies, Towhees play important roles in their ecosystems. While many Towhee species have stable populations, some face conservation challenges due to factors like habitat loss, invasive species, and disease. Continued research and conservation efforts are crucial to ensure the well-being of Towhees and their habitats for future generations to enjoy.

Soumik SarkarS

Soumik Sarkar

I am an animal lover from India. It's a trusted website for animal lover.

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